Negotiations over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam have recommenced involving Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia. Despite this, the finalization of an agreement concerning the Nile River mega-dam remains elusive due to numerous challenges.

The most recent round of discussions began in Cairo on Sunday, involving the three nations. Egypt aims to secure a binding legal agreement in these talks, addressing the operational and filling aspects of the dam, Egypt’s State Information Service reported.

Ethiopia initiated the dam's filling in the summer of 2020. Situated on the Blue Nile river, a tributary of the Nile, near the Sudanese border, the dam is intended to furnish electricity to Ethiopia's populace and facilitate development and poverty alleviation. In 2022, only 44% of Ethiopians had access to electricity, according to a profile by the US International Trade Administration.

However, downstream nations such as Egypt and Sudan express concerns that Ethiopia's independent filling of the dam could significantly diminish the Nile River's levels and those of its tributaries in their territories, particularly during droughts. The Nile holds tremendous importance for regional countries, with Egypt relying on the river for over 90% of its water.

Negotiations regarding the dam have oscillated for more than a decade. Mediation efforts by entities such as the United States and the African Union (AU) have failed to yield a consensus. The AU's last sponsored direct negotiations on the dam occurred in 2021.

As of March 2023, Ethiopia reported that 90% of the dam's construction had been completed. In July, Ethiopia commenced the fourth filling of the dam during the annual rainy season, alongside an announcement in the previous year that electricity generation had begun from the dam.

These ongoing discussions followed a meeting between Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi and Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed in Cairo last month, which took place during a summit addressing the Sudan conflict. At the time, the two leaders pledged to reach a dam agreement within four months.