Table 2: Examples of reference cases (S: storage; P-S: pumped-storage)

Reference type Reference cases
SHP plant (existing or planned) S project by building a small dam upstream of the water intake of a planned SHP plant.
S project by increasing the capacity of an existing lake of which the water is used in 4 existing serial SHP plants.
Lake P-S project with an alpine lake which could be connected to an existing dammed lake and combined with artificial snow making and drinking water infrastructures.
P-S project between 2 existing lakes already used for hydropower, but not connected for P-S SHP yet.
Artificial snow making infrastructure P-S project with an existing and a planned reservoir.
Irrigation infrastructure P-S project using 2 existing irrigation reservoirs
Drinking water infrastructure P-S project to secure drinking water for tourism village and which could include hydropower production.