Table 4: New and adapted remuneration instruments for storage and pumped-storages SHP (in italic: not within RET facilitation)

Instrument Description
STORAGE Feed-in remuneration: peak premium A premium is paid for production during peak demand and could be linked to the EEX spot market price, the numbers of yearly production hours and/or regularity in production (e.g. daily 2 hours of lunch).
Labelled green electricity: quota for peak production Customers buying labelled green electricity have to be supplied with peak labelled green electricity as well according to their consumption profile.
CO2 compensation: scheme for peak and flexible production When thermal power plants compensate their GHG emissions, they have to compensate according to their production profile (base and/or peak; flexible production).
PUMP.-ST. Sustainable alpine mobility: internal remuneration Ski resorts use their infrastructures to produce electricity from RETs to cover their demand. Water in reservoirs is used within pumped-storage schemes when not needed for artificial snow making. Other RETs provide for the pumping energy.
BOTH Ancillary services: green services Based on the percentage of electricity from RETs in the electricity mix, at least the same percentage is asked from RETs for ancillary services. Add pumped-storage SHP only once superfluous electricity from other RETs available for pumping.
Ancillary services: regional/local approach Distributed plants contribute at lower voltage level to decentralised ancillary services.
Regional integration of wind and solar power Intermittent production plants have to provide regional storage capacities (e.g. for time shifting). SHP can be combined with wind and solar power plants to a virtual power plant remunerated over an adapted feed-in remuneration scheme. The increase in quality of weather forecasts will improve the coordination between intermittent production and storage facilities.